This node is provided to enable modellers to input a time series of demands. It is potentially useful when calibrating a Source model where a staged approach is used, for example where it is desired to calibrate storage behaviour using recorded historical outflows and inflows. It can be used when modelling both unregulated and regulated river systems.
Implemented at the site scale.
Providing a time series of demands as input data is a basic, and well established, approach in river system and storage modelling.
Source version v4.3
A Water User node is required by Source to access the time series demand node.
Structure and processes
Time series of demands can be input:
- via a data file;
- from an existing scenario; or
- via a function defined by the modeller.
The Time Series Demand node provides demand values to the Water User node at every model time-step. When modelling a regulated system and:
- The time series of demands have been input via a data file, the Water User node supplies the Time Series Demand node with a value of maximum travel time, tmax (defined below). At a given model time-step, the demand value extracted from the input data file is the one for tmax time-steps in advance of the current time-step.
- Demands come from an existing scenario. In this case the procedure operates in the same way as when the demands have been input via a data file. The information loaded from an existing scenario must have the same number of time-steps as used in modelling the current scenario.
- Demands are calculated by evaluating the function defined by the modeller, no adjustment for travel time can be made as functions can only be evaluated based on current information (ie they cannot "look ahead"). In this case the demand value can only be the one that is applicable to the current model time-step (equivalent to tmax = 0).
Where tmax = the travel time from the upstream storage having greatest travel time between it and this Time Series Demand node, expressed in numbers of model time-steps.
In the first two cases, the extracted data value is used to update an array of demand values for the current time-step and tmax time-steps into the future, and this array is returned to the Water User node. In the third case, only a single value is returned to the Water User node.
When modelling an unregulated system, the demand value returned to the Water User node is the one that is applicable to the current model time-step, regardless of whether it comes from an input data file, from a scenario, or from evaluating a function.
More information on how this value is further processed is available in the Water User section of this Scientific Reference Guide.
When demands are entered in a time series data file or demands come from an existing scenario, there must be one value per model time-step with no missing values. Units must be specified. Information on other input data is given in Parameters or settings, below. Details are provided in the Source User Guide.
Parameters or settings
Model parameters are summarised in.
Table 1. Model parameters
Travel time (only when modelling a regulated system)
Expected time for water to travel from nominated storage to the demand node
Governed by maximum travel time in the system being modelled
A file of demand values
See list below
Information from an existing scenario
A function defined by the modeller
Return Flow (see note below)
Percentage of volume of water supplied (which may differ from demand)
Percentage or proportion
A fixed volume
Units can be selected
A volume defined using a function
Units can be selected in the function editor
Allowable units are:
- Megalitres per day
- Gigalitres per day
- Megalitres per year
- Cubic metres per second
- Litres per second
- Kilolitres per day
- Kilolitres per year
The Time Series Demand node returns an array of demand values to the Water User node, or a single demand value for the current model time-step, as described above.