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n              Manning roughness,

R              Hydraulic radius of channel,

g               Acceleration due to gravity,

k               Deflected roughness height of vegetation, defined by Eq. 2

a, b           Relative roughness parameters, defined in Table 1.

(2)

where:

M     MEI          EIEmpirical vegetation stiffness parameter,

h              Length of vegetation.

               Bed Shear stress, defined by Eq. 3.

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Table 1: Values of a and b.

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Classification

Criteria

a

b

Erect

v*/v*crit ≤ 1.0

0.15

1.85

Prone

1.0 < v*/v*crit ≤ 1.5

0.20

2.70

Prone

1.5 < v*/v*crit ≤ 2.5

0.28

3.08

Prone

2.5 < v*/v*crit

0.29

3.50

where:

v*            Shear velocity, defined by Eq. 5,

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